REAL-TIME STUDY OF NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER DURING DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OF WATER
Solidification is a study of heat and mass transfer phenomena and has a large number of engineering and geophysical applications. Solidification of water is different from other pure materials due to the anomalous density behavior. The anomalous density behavior of water leads to natural convection in liquid during solidification in a thermally stable environment such as bottom cooling. We report the real-time study of whole field temperature and velocity associated with the process of solidification of water in a cubical bottom cooled cavity using Mach-Zehnder interferometer and particle image velocimetry respectively (PIV). This study presents quantitative results of full-field temperature and velocity measurements made in a completely non-intrusive manner. For a better understanding of the solidification process, the full visual field was analyzed to obtain density, temperature, and velocities. The data clearly shows conduction and natural convection regimes that evolve during the solidification process. Natural convection in the liquid is found to cause non-uniformity in the solid-liquid interface and the effects of natural convection on the growth rate of solid formation.